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A review of IC

- Jan 25, 2018 -


IC集成电路图册集成电路,英文为Integrated Circuit,缩写为IC;就是把一定数量的常用电子元件,如电阻、电容、晶体管等,以及这些元件之间的连线,通过半导体工艺集成在一起的具有特定功能的电路。是20世纪50年代后期一60年代发展起来的一种新型半导体器件。它是经过氧化、光刻、扩散、外延、蒸铝等半导体制造工艺,把构成具有一定功能的电路所需的半导体、电阻、电容等元件及它们之间的连接导线全部集成在一小块硅片上,然后焊接封装在一个管壳内的电子器件。其封装外壳有圆壳式、扁平式或双列直插式等多种形式。集成电路技术包括芯片制造技术与设计技术,主要体现在加工设备,加工工艺,封装测试,批量生产及设计创新的能力上。为什么会产生集成电路?我们知道任何发明创造背后都是有驱动力的,而驱动力往往来源于问题。那么集成电路产生之前的问题是什么呢?我们看一下1942年在美国诞生的世界上第一台电子计算机,它是一个占地150平方米、重达30吨的庞然大物,里面的电路使用了17468只电子管、7200只电阻、10000只电容、50万条线,耗电量150千瓦。显然,占用面积大、无法移动是它最直观和突出的问题;如果能把这些电子元件和连线集成在一小块载体上该有多好!我们相信,有很多人思考过这个问题,也提出过各种想法。典型的如英国雷达研究所的科学家达默,他在1952年的一次会议上提出:可以把电子线路中的分立元器件,集中制作在一块半导体晶片上,一小块晶片就是一个完整电路,这样一来,电子线路的体积就可大大缩小,可靠性大幅提高。这就是初期集成电路的构想,晶体管的发明使这种想法成为了可能,1947年在美国贝尔实验室制造出来了第一个晶体管,而在此之前要实现电流放大功能只能依靠体积大、耗电量大、结构脆弱的电子管。晶体管具有电子管的主要功能,并且克服了电子管的上述缺点,因此在晶体管发明后,很快就出现了基于半导体的集成电路的构想,也就很快发明出来了集成电路。杰克·基尔比(Jack Kilby)和罗伯特·诺伊斯(Robert Noyce)在1958~1959期间分别发明了锗集成电路和硅集成电路。讲完了历史,我们再来看现状。集成电路已经在各行各业中发挥着非常重要的作用,是现代信息社会的基石。集成电路的含义,已经远远超过了其刚诞生时的定义范围,但其最核心的部分,仍然没有改变,那就是“集成”,其所衍生出来的各种学科,大都是围绕着“集成什么”、“如何集成”、“如何处理集成带来的利弊”这三个问题来开展的。硅集成电路是主流,就是把实现某种功能的电路所需的各种元件都放在一块硅片上,所形成的整体被称作集成电路。对于“集成”,想象一下我们住过的房子可能比较容易理解:很多人小时候都住过农村的房子,那时房屋的主体也许就是三两间平房,发挥着卧室的功能,门口的小院子摆上一副桌椅,就充当客厅,旁边还有个炊烟袅袅的小矮屋,那是厨房,而具有独特功能的厕所,需要有一定的隔离,有可能在房屋的背后,要走上十几米。后来,到了城市里,或者乡村城镇化,大家都住进了楼房或者套房,一套房里面,有客厅、卧室、厨房、卫生间、阳台,也许只有几十平方米,却具有了原来占地几百平方米的农村房屋的各种功能,这就是集成。当然现如今的集成电路,其集成度远非一套房能比拟的,或许用一幢摩登大楼可以更好地类比:地面上有商铺、办公、食堂、酒店式公寓,地下有几层是停车场,停车场下面还有地基——这是集成电路的布局,模拟电路和数字电路分开,处理小信号的敏感电路与翻转频繁的控制逻辑分开,电源单独放在一角。每层楼的房间布局不一样,走廊也不一样,有回字形的、工字形的、几字形的——这是集成电路器件设计,低噪声电路中可以用折叠形状或“叉指”结构的晶体管来减小结面积和栅电阻。各楼层直接有高速电梯可达,为了效率和功能隔离,还可能有多部电梯,每部电梯能到的楼层不同——这是集成电路的布线,电源线、地线单独走线,负载大的线也宽;时钟与信号分开;每层之间布线垂直避免干扰;CPU与存储之间的高速总线,相当于电梯,各层之间的通孔相当于电梯间。

IC integrated circuit integrated circuit English Integrated atlas, Circuit, abbreviated as IC; is the electronic components used in a certain amount, such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, and the connection between these elements, integrated circuit together with specific functions by semiconductor technology. It was a new type of semiconductor device developed in the late 1950s of the year of the 1950s. It is through oxidation, photolithography, epitaxy, diffusion, evaporation of aluminum and semiconductor manufacturing process, the connecting wire between the required circuit has a certain function of the semiconductor, resistors, capacitors and other components and they are integrated in a small piece of silicon wafer, and then welding electronic devices are encapsulated in a casing. Its enclosure has many forms, such as round shell, flat or double row, and so on. Integrated circuit technology, including chip manufacturing technology and design technology, is mainly embodied in processing equipment, processing technology, packaging and testing, mass production and design innovation ability.

Why is an integrated circuit generated? We know that there is a driving force behind any inventions, and the driving force often comes from the problem. So what is the problem before the integrated circuit is generated? We see in the United States in 1942 the birth of the world's first electronic computer, it is an area of 150 square meters, weighing 30 tons of the inside of the circuit using a huge monster, 17468 tubes, 7200 resistors, 10000 capacitors, 500 thousand lines, 150 kilowatts of power consumption. Obviously, it's the most intuitive and prominent problem to occupy large area and unable to move. If we can integrate these electronic components and wires into a small carrier, how good it is! We believe that a lot of people have thought about this problem and have put forward all kinds of ideas. Such as the typical British scientist Dahmer of the radar, he presented at a meeting in 1952: you can put the discrete components in electronic circuits, centralized production in a semiconductor chip, a small chip is an integrated circuit, so that the volume of the electronic circuit can be greatly reduced, greatly improve the reliability. This is the beginning of the conception of integrated circuit, the invention of the transistor it is possible to this idea, the Baer laboratory in the United States in 1947 produced the first transistor, and prior to implementation of the current amplification function can only rely on large volume, high power consumption, the structure of electronic tube fragile. The transistor has the main function of the electron tube, and overcomes the above shortcomings of the electron tube. So after the invention of transistor, the idea of semiconductor based integrated circuit appeared very quickly, and the integrated circuit was invented very quickly. Jack Kilby (Jack Kilby) and Robert Noyes (Robert Noyce) invented germanium integrated circuits and silicon integrated circuits respectively during 1958~1959.

By the end of the history, we will look at the situation again. Integrated circuits have played a very important role in all walks of life, and are the cornerstones of modern information society. The meaning of integrated circuit, far more than just the birth of the definition, its core part, still has not changed, that is "integration", which is derived from the various disciplines, are mostly around the integration of "what" and "how to integrate" and "how to deal with the integration of the advantages and disadvantages of" these three problems to carry out. Silicon integrated circuit is the mainstream, that is to put all kinds of components needed to achieve a functional circuit on a piece of silicon, and the whole form is called integrated circuit. For the "integration", imagine we lived in the house might be easier to understand: a lot of people when all live in rural house, then the main housing is perhaps 32 bungalows, play the function of the bedroom door, the small courtyard put on a pair of tables and chairs, as guest hall, next to a smoke the small house, the kitchen, and has the unique function of the toilet, need to have some isolated, likely in the house behind to walk ten meters. Later, to the city, or rural urbanization, we all live in a building or a suite, a suite, a living room, bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, balcony, perhaps only tens of square meters, it has various functions of the original area of several hundred square meters of rural housing, which is integrated. Of course, the integrated circuit now, its integration is far from a suite can be compared, perhaps with a modern building can be a better analogy: there are shops, office, canteen, hotel style apartments on the ground, underground layers of parking lot, parking lot also below the foundation -- this is the integrated circuit layout, separate analog circuit and digital circuit, separate small signal sensitive circuits and frequent turnover control logic, power alone in a corner. The layout of each floor is different, and the corridors are also different. There are back shaped, I-shaped, and glyph shaped elements. This is the design of integrated circuit devices. In the low noise circuit, the junction area and gate resistance can be reduced by using folded or cross finger transistors. Each floor has direct lift up to high speed, efficiency and function in order to isolate, may also have multiple elevator, each elevator to the different floors -- this is the integrated circuit wiring, power line and ground line walk alone, the load line is wide; and separate clock signal; each layer between the vertical wiring to avoid interference; high-speed bus between CPU and storage, equivalent to the elevator, through holes between the layers is equivalent to the elevator