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Operation principle of display

- Dec 22, 2017 -

Operation principle

目前液晶显示技术大多以TN、STN、TFT三种技术为主轴,因此我们就这从这三种技术来探讨它们的运作原理。TN型的液晶显示技术可说是液晶显示器中最基本的,而之后其它种类的液晶显示器也可说是以TN型为原点来加以改良。同样的,它的运作原理也较其它技术来的简单,请读者参照下方的图片。图中所表示的是TN型液晶显示器的简易构造图,包括了垂直方向与水平方向的偏光板,具有细纹沟槽的配向膜,液晶材料以及导电的玻璃基板。 其显像原理是将液晶材料置于两片贴附光轴垂直偏光板之透明导电玻璃间,液晶分子会依配向膜的细沟槽方向依序旋转排列,如果电场未形成,光线会顺利的从偏光板射入,依液晶分子旋转其行进方向,然后从另一边射出。如果在两片导电玻璃通电之后,两片玻璃间会造成电场,进而影响其间液晶分子的排列,使其分子棒进行扭转,光线便无法穿透,进而遮住光源。这样所得到光暗对比的现象,叫做扭转式向列场效应,简称TNFE(twisted nematic field effect)。在电子产品中所用的液晶显示器,几乎都是用扭转式向列场效应原理所

At present, the main axis of liquid crystal display technology is mostly TN, STN, TFT, so we discuss the operation principle of these three technologies from these three technologies. TN LCD technology is the most basic part of LCD. After that, other kinds of liquid crystal display can also be improved based on TN. In the same way, it is simpler to operate than other technologies. Please refer to the picture below. The diagram shows a simple structure diagram of TN LCD, including vertical and horizontal polarizing plates, film with fine groove, liquid crystal material and conductive glass substrate. The imaging principle is the liquid crystal material is placed in the two piece attached to the vertical axis of polarizing plate transparent conductive glass, liquid crystal molecules with alignmentfilm grooves arranged according to the direction of rotation, if the electric field is not formed, the light will pass through the polarizing plate into the liquid crystal molecules in the rotating direction, and then from the injection on the other side. If the two conductive glass is energized, the electric field between the two glass will cause electric field, which will affect the arrangement of the liquid crystal molecules, and make the molecular rods twist. The light will not penetrate and hide the light source. The phenomenon of light and dark contrast is called the torsional column field effect, called TNFE (twisted nematic field effect). Almost all of the liquid crystal displays used in electronic products are used in the torsional direction of column field effect.

制成。STN型的显示原理也似类似,不同的是TN扭转式向列场效应的液晶分子是将入射光旋转90度,而STN超扭转式向列场效应是将入射光旋转180~270度。要在这边说明的是,单纯的TN液晶显示器本身只有明暗两种情形(或称黑白),并没有办法做到色彩的变化。而STN液晶显示器牵涉液晶材料的关系,以及光线的干涉现象,因此显示的色调都以淡绿色与橘色为主。但如果在传统单色STN液晶显示器加上一彩色滤光片(color filter),并将单色显示矩阵之任一像素(pixel)分成三个子像素(sub-pixel),分别透过彩色滤光片显示红、绿、蓝三原色,再经由三原色比例之调和,也可以显示出全彩模式的色彩。另外,TN型的液晶显示器如果显示屏幕做的越大,其屏幕对比度就会显得较差,不过藉由STN的改良技术,则可以弥补对比度不足的情况。

Make。 The display principle of STN is also similar. The difference is the TN torsion nematic field effect. The liquid crystal molecules rotate the incident light 90 degrees, while the STN super torsional nematic field effect rotates the incident light 180~270 degrees. What to explain here is that the simple TN liquid crystal display itself has only two cases (or black and white) in the light and shade, and there is no way to make a change in color. And STN liquid crystal display involves the relationship of liquid crystal material, and the interference of light, so the colors are mainly light green and orange. But if in the traditional STN monochrome LCD with a color filter (color filter), and the monochrome display matrix of each pixel (pixel) is divided into three sub pixels (sub-pixel), respectively, through the color filter shows red, green and blue colors, the proportion of the harmonic, also can show color color. In addition, the larger the display screen is, the worse the screen contrast will be for TN LCD. However, the improved technology of STN can make up for the lack of contrast.

TFT型的液晶显示器较为复杂,主要的构成包括了,荧光管、导光板、偏光板、滤光板、玻

The TFT type liquid crystal display is more complex. The main components include the fluorescent tube, the light guide plate, the polarizing plate, the filter plate, the glass plate, and the glass glass.

璃基板、配向膜、液晶材料、薄模式晶体管等等。首先液晶显示器必须先利用背光源,也就是荧光灯管投射出光源,这些光源会先经过一个偏光板然后再经过液晶,这时液晶分子的排列方式进而改变穿透液晶的光线角度。然后这些光线接下来还必须经过前方的彩色的滤光膜与另一块偏光板。因此我们只要改变刺激液晶的电压值就可以控制最后出现的光线强度与色彩,并进而能在液晶面板上变化出有不同深浅的颜色组合了。

The glass substrate, the alignment film, the liquid crystal material, the thin mode transistor and so on. First of all, liquid crystal display must first use back light source, that is fluorescent lamp tube to project the light source. These light sources will pass through a polarizing plate first and then pass through the liquid crystal. Then the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules will change the angle of light passing through the liquid crystal. Then the light has to go through the front of the color filter membrane and another polarizer. Therefore, as long as we change the voltage value of stimulating the liquid crystal, we can control the intensity and color of the last light, and then we can change the color combinations of different shades on the LCD panel.