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What are the categories of liquid crystal displays? What's the difference between them?

- Mar 15, 2018 -

What are the categories of liquid crystal displays? What's the difference between them?


The common liquid crystal displays are divided into four types according to the physical structure.

(1) twisted nematic (TN-Twisted Nematic);

(2) super twisted nematic (STN-Super TN);

(3) double layer super twisted nematic (DSTN-Dual Scan Tortuosity Nomograph);

(4) thin film transistor type (TFT-Thin Film Transistor).

The 1.TN type is the most basic display technology in the LCD display, and then the other types of LCD display are also based on the TN type. Moreover, it is simpler to operate than other technologies. Please refer to the picture below. The diagram shows a simple structure diagram of TN LCD, including vertical and horizontal polarizing plates, film with fine groove, liquid crystal material and conductive glass substrate. Widely used in the entrance and middle end of the panel, in performance indicators do not shine, can not show 16.7M color, and visual angle has natural chronic disease.  The TN panels in the market are all improved TN+film, film, that is, the compensation membrane, which is used to make up for the lack of visual angle of the TN panel. Meanwhile, the use of color jitter technology has made the TN panel which only display 260 thousand colors at the same time has obtained the display ability of 16.2M. It is to say that the only way to win the TN panel is the two front panel. Because of its less output ash class and faster liquid crystal molecular deflection, its response time is easy to improve. At present, the LCD panels below 8ms use TN panels. Generally speaking, the TN panel is a product with obvious advantages and disadvantages, and the price is cheap. The response time can meet the requirements of the game, making its advantages, the visual angle is not ideal and the color performance is not true, and it is also a significant disadvantage.

The display principle of type 2.STN is similar to that of TN.  The difference is that the TN torsion nematic field liquid crystal molecules rotate the incident light 90 degrees, while the STN super torsional nematic field effect is rotating the incident light 180~270 degrees.

3.DSTN is used to scan the twisted nematic LCD by double scanning, so as to achieve the purpose of display. DSTN is developed from a super twisted nematic display (STN).  Because DSTN uses double scanning technology, the display effect is greatly improved compared with STN.

Liquid crystal display 4.TFT, IPS (In-Plane Switching, flat panel technology conversion) technology is Hitachi launched in 2001, it was also known as "Super TFT". It is mainly composed of fluorescent tube, light guide plate, polarizing plate, filter plate, glass substrate, alignment film, liquid crystal material, thin mode transistor and so on. First of all, LCD must first use backlight, or fluorescent lamp to project the light source. These light sources will pass through a polarizer first and then pass through the liquid crystal. At this time, the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules will change the angle of light passing through the liquid crystal, and then these light must go through the colored filter film and another polarizer.  Therefore, as long as we change the voltage value added to the LCD, we can control the intensity and color of the last light, so that we can change the color combinations with different hue on the LCD panel. It is the current mainstream LCD panel. From a technical point of view, the traditional LCD display liquid crystal molecules are generally in vertical parallel state switch between MVA and PVA will be improved as the switching mode of vertical two-way tilt, and the differences between IPS technology and the technology is that, regardless of the liquid crystal molecules in what state is always and only in parallel to the screen, and electric / rotation direction of the normal state of molecules is different, MVA, PVA of the liquid crystal molecules belonging to the space rotation rotation (Z axis), and the IPS of the liquid crystal molecules belonging to the rotation of the rotation in a plane (X-Y axis). In order to match this structure, IPS requires the improvement of the electrode, and the electrode is on the same side to form a plane electric field. With this design problem is twofold, visual angle problems have been solved, on the other hand due to large rotation angle of liquid crystal molecules, the panel opening rate is low (light transmittance), so IPS also has a slower response time and contrast is difficult to improve the shortcomings of. 16.7M color, 170 degree visual angle and 16ms response time represent the highest level of current IPS LCD display


The common liquid crystal displays are divided into four types according to the physical structure.

(1) twisted nematic (TN-Twisted Nematic);

(2) super twisted nematic (STN-Super TN);

(3) double layer super twisted nematic (DSTN-Dual Scan Tortuosity Nomograph);

(4) thin film transistor type (TFT-Thin Film Transistor).

The 1.TN type is the most basic display technology in the LCD display, and then the other types of LCD display are also based on the TN type. Moreover, it is simpler to operate than other technologies. Please refer to the picture below. The diagram shows a simple structure diagram of TN LCD, including vertical and horizontal polarizing plates, film with fine groove, liquid crystal material and conductive glass substrate. Widely used in the entrance and middle end of the panel, in performance indicators do not shine, can not show 16.7M color, and visual angle has natural chronic disease.  The TN panels in the market are all improved TN+film, film, that is, the compensation membrane, which is used to make up for the lack of visual angle of the TN panel. Meanwhile, the use of color jitter technology has made the TN panel which only display 260 thousand colors at the same time has obtained the display ability of 16.2M. It is to say that the only way to win the TN panel is the two front panel. Because of its less output ash class and faster liquid crystal molecular deflection, its response time is easy to improve. At present, the LCD panels below 8ms use TN panels. Generally speaking, the TN panel is a product with obvious advantages and disadvantages, and the price is cheap. The response time can meet the requirements of the game, making its advantages, the visual angle is not ideal and the color performance is not true, and it is also a significant disadvantage.

The display principle of type 2.STN is similar to that of TN.  The difference is that the TN torsion nematic field liquid crystal molecules rotate the incident light 90 degrees, while the STN super torsional nematic field effect is rotating the incident light 180~270 degrees.

3.DSTN is used to scan the twisted nematic LCD by double scanning, so as to achieve the purpose of display. DSTN is developed from a super twisted nematic display (STN).  Because DSTN uses double scanning technology, the display effect is greatly improved compared with STN.

Liquid crystal display 4.TFT, IPS (In-Plane Switching, flat panel technology conversion) technology is Hitachi launched in 2001, it was also known as "Super TFT". It is mainly composed of fluorescent tube, light guide plate, polarizing plate, filter plate, glass substrate, alignment film, liquid crystal material, thin mode transistor and so on. First of all, LCD must first use backlight, or fluorescent lamp to project the light source. These light sources will pass through a polarizer first and then pass through the liquid crystal. At this time, the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules will change the angle of light passing through the liquid crystal, and then these light must go through the colored filter film and another polarizer.  Therefore, as long as we change the voltage value added to the LCD, we can control the intensity and color of the last light, so that we can change the color combinations with different hue on the LCD panel. It is the current mainstream LCD panel. From a technical point of view, the traditional LCD display liquid crystal molecules are generally in vertical parallel state switch between MVA and PVA will be improved as the switching mode of vertical two-way tilt, and the differences between IPS technology and the technology is that, regardless of the liquid crystal molecules in what state is always and only in parallel to the screen, and electric / rotation direction of the normal state of molecules is different, MVA, PVA of the liquid crystal molecules belonging to the space rotation rotation (Z axis), and the IPS of the liquid crystal molecules belonging to the rotation of the rotation in a plane (X-Y axis). In order to match this structure, IPS requires the improvement of the electrode, and the electrode is on the same side to form a plane electric field. With this design problem is twofold, visual angle problems have been solved, on the other hand due to large rotation angle of liquid crystal molecules, the panel opening rate is low (light transmittance), so IPS also has a slower response time and contrast is difficult to improve the shortcomings of. 16.7M color, 170 degree visual angle and 16ms response time represent the highest level of current IPS LCD display